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# Pipe elbows size data

An elbow is a pipe fitting installed between two lengths of pipe or tubing to allow a change of direction, usually a 90° or 45° angle, though 22.5° elbows are also made.

The ends may be machined for butt welding, threaded (usually female), or socketed, etc. When the two ends differ in size, the fitting is called a reducing elbow or reducer elbow.

• Pressure: SCH5 to SCH160
• Size range: 1/2 to 56 inches (DN 15 to DN 1,400mm), 22.5 Deg, 45 Deg, 90 Deg, 180 Deg
• Manufacturing standards: ANSI, ISO, JIS and DIN
• Process: butt welding, seamless, threaded , or socketed

By default, there are 5 opportunities, the 45°, 90° and 180° elbows, all three in the "long radius" version, and in addition the 90° and 180° elbows both in the "short radius" version.

Long Radius (LR) Elbows – radius is 1.5 times the pipe diameter

Short Radius (SR) Elbows – radius is 1.0 times the pipe diameter

Elbows are split into two groups which define the distance over which they change direction; the center line of one end to the opposite face. This is known as the "center to face" distance and is equivalent to the radius through which the elbow is bent.

Here below, for example, you will find the center to face distance of NPS 2 elbows (the A distance on the image)

•  90°-LR : = 1½ x 2(NPS) x 25.4 A=76.2 mm
•  180°-LR : = 2 times the 90° LR elbow A=152.4 mm
• 90°-SR : = 2(NPS) x 25.4 A=50.8 mm
• 180°-SR : = 2 times the 90° SR elbow A=101.6 mm

The center to face distance for a "long" radius elbow, abbreviated LR always is "1½ x Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) (1½D)", while the center to face distance for a "short" radius elbow, abbreviated SR even is to nominal pipe size.

3D elbows as an example, are calculated with:
3(D) x 2(NPS) x 25.4

Note:
• 90 Degree Elbow – where change in direction required is 90°
• 45 Degree Elbow – where change in direction required is 45°
 Nominal pipe size Outside Diameter  at Bevel Center to End Center to Center Back to Faces 45° Elbows 90°Elbows 180°Return H F P K DN INCH Series A Series B LR LR SR LR SR LR SR 15 1/2 21.3 18 16 38 - 76 - 48 - 20 3/4 26.9 25 16 38 - 76 - 51 - 25 1 33.7 32 16 38 25 76 51 56 41 32 11/4 42.4 38 20 48 32 95 64 70 52 40 11/2 48.3 45 24 57 38 114 76 83 62 50 2 60.3 57 32 76 51 152 102 106 81 65 21/2 76.1(73) 76 40 95 64 191 127 132 100 80 3 88.9 89 47 114 76 229 152 159 121 90 31/2 101.6 - 55 133 89 267 178 184 140 100 4 114.3 108 63 152 102 305 203 210 159 125 5 139.7 133 79 190 127 381 254 262 197 150 6 168.3 159 95 229 152 457 305 313 237 200 8 219.1 219 126 305 203 610 406 414 313 250 10 273.0 273 158 381 254 762 508 518 391 300 12 323.9 325 189 457 305 914 610 619 467 350 14 355.6 377 221 533 356 1067 711 711 533 400 16 406.4 426 253 610 406 1219 813 813 610 450 18 457.2 478 284 686 457 1372 914 914 686 500 20 508.0 529 316 762 508 1524 1016 1016 762 550 22 559 - 347 838 559 600 24 610 630 379 914 610 650 26 660 - 410 991 660 700 28 711 720 442 1067 711 750 30 762 - 473 1143 762 800 32 813 820 505 1219 813 850 34 864 - 537 1295 864 900 36 914 920 568 1372 914 950 38 965 - 600 1448 965 1000 40 1016 1020 631 1524 1016 1050 42 1067 - 663 1600 1067 1100 44 1118 1120 694 1676 1118 1150 46 1168 - 726 1753 1168 1200 48 1220 1220 758 1829 1219
Note:
1. Do not use the figures in the parenthesis as far as possible
2. Please first select A series.

Weight of elbows

 NPS inches ELBOWS LR 90° ELBOWS SR 90° Sch. 5S Sch. 10S Sch. 40S Sch. 80S Sch. 5S Sch. 10S Sch. 40S Sch. 80S 1/2 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.07 3/4 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.11 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 1 0.09 0.15 0.18 0.20 0.06 0.10 0.12 0.13 1 1/4 0.13 0.20 0.25 0.35 0.09 0.13 0.17 0.12 1 1/2 0.18 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.12 0.20 0.27 0.33 2 0.30 0.50 0.70 0.90 0.20 0.33 0.47 0.60 2 1/2 0.60 0.85 1.35 1.80 0.40 0.60 0.90 1.20 3 0.90 1.30 2.00 2.90 0.60 0.90 1.35 1.90 4 1.40 2.00 4.00 5.90 0.90 1.35 2.65 3.90 5 2.90 3.60 6.50 9.70 1.95 2.40 4.35 6.50 6 4.00 5.00 10.5 16.0 2.70 3.35 7.00 10.5 8 7.40 10.0 21.5 33.5 4.90 6.70 14.5 22.5 10 13.6 16.8 38.5 52.5 9.10 11.2 25.6 35.0 12 23.4 27.0 59.0 79.0 15.6 18.0 39.5 53.0 14 29.0 35.0 70.0 94.0 19.3 23.5 47.0 63.0 16 41.3 47.0 95.0 125 27.5 31.5 63.5 84.0 18 51.8 59.0 120 158 34.5 39.5 80.0 105 20 73.0 85.0 146 194 49.0 57.0 98.0 129 24 122 140 210 282 82.0 94.0 140 188 Approximate weights in kg, density 8 kg/dm3

Angularity Tolerances

 ND Max off angle Max off plane Q P 1/2 a 4 1 2 5 a 8 2 4 10 a 12 3 5 14 a 16 3 7 18 a 24 4 10 26 a 30 5 10 32 a 42 5 13 44 a 48 5 20

Key Specifications/Special Features and Materials:

the material is selected accoding to the application use such as high temperature use,sanitary fitting,regular industrial use etc.

• Carbon steel: ASTM A234 WPB, WPC, ASTM A420 WPL1, WPL3, WPL6, WPHY-42/46/52/56/60/65/70
• Stainless steel: ASTM A403 WP304/304L, WP316/316/L, WP321, WP347 and WPS31254
• Alloy steel: ASTM A234 WP1/WP12/WP11/WP22/WP5/WP7/WP9/WP91
• Abrasion resistant material:Ceramic lined, Ceramic tile lined , Bi-metal clad pipe,
• Manufacturing standards: ANSI, ISO, JIS and DIN.

Application of pipe elbows: Petroleum, chemical, power, gas, metallurgy, shipbuilding, construction, etc.

Wall Thickness of Elbows

The weakest point on an elbow is the inside radius. ASME B16.9 only standardizes the center to face dimensions and some "squareness" dimensional tolerances. The wall thickness at the weld line location even is standardized, but not through the rest of an elbow. The standard states that the minimum tolerance will be within 12.5% of the minimum ordered wall thickness of the pipe. A maximum tolerance is specified only at the ends of the fitting.

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### Fitting specification, Standard and identification

There are different varieties of pipe fittings made of various materials and available in various shapes and sizes.

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